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Sei Whale and Short-Fin Mako Shark Endangered; Hudsonian Godwit Threatened
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Sei Whale and Short-Fin Mako Shark Endangered; Hudsonian Godwit Threatened

Monday May 6 was not a great day for species at risk.  On the morning of May 6, the 455 scientists on the UN’s Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) announced that close to one million species are nearing extinction globallyThat same afternoon, Canada’s Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) announced its revised list of species at risk.

The news is not good

COSEWIC scientists have determined that the Sei whale and the short-fin mako shark are now endangered, and the Hudsonian godwit is threatened. COSEWIC decided that the Vancouver Island marmot should remain on the endangered species—it was first listed as endangered in 2008. One bit of good news is that the status of the Pacific population of fin whale is improved from threatened to special concern; the Atlantic population of fin whale also has a special concern status. Members of the same family as the blue and fin whale, the Sei whale inhabits most oceans and prefers deep offshore waters. The short-fin mako is the fastest-swimming shark in the world. This species is more vulnerable than many other Atlantic sharks because of its long lifespan and low reproductive rate. The Canadian Atlantic population was listed as threatened in 2006, and was improved to special concern in 2017. The Hudsonian godwit is a large shorebird that migrates from the Canadian Arctic to southern South America, but has a breeding range restricted to a small part of the Hudson Bay coast and small areas in Alaska and the Northwest Territories. Much of the population of Hudsonian godwit stops over in southern James Bay en route.

Species at risk need marine protected areas

These new species at risk listings underline the importance of protecting marine and coastal areas. Canada is committed to protecting 10 per cent of our oceans and has made good progress towards that goal in the past few years, announcing, for example, protection of the Laurentian Channel off the coast of Newfoundland and Labrador. The Pacific Deep Sea Oasis off the British Columbia also needs protection as a marine protected area. The Moose Cree First Nation are pressing for recognition of the James Bay coast as a Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network (WHSRN) site, and for recognition and respect by other levels of government that it is protected under Indigenous law. Nature Canada is focused on ensuring a doubling of Canada’s protected areas by 2020.  All tools available to governments, Indigenous communities and nature conservancies need to be deployed urgently to protect as much nature as possible: the $1.3 billion in the 2018 federal budget allocated to establishing new protected areas and protecting species at risk is a big boost in that effort.

The Plains Bison: No Buffalo
© Kim Toews
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The Plains Bison: No Buffalo

The males are called bulls, the calves are called red dogs, and some people call them all buffalo, but that's where science and language collide. Despite often being used interchangeably, bison and buffalo are completely different animals! There is some debate about why this confusion is so common, but the only real species of buffalo are native to either Asia or Africa and have evolved accordingly. The plains bison, scientifically named Bison bison bison, weighs about 1600 pounds if male, while the females weigh about 1000 pounds. Despite these whopping measurements, however, the plains bison is actually the smallest bison species!

Where are they found in Canada?

As a result of various protection laws enacted, the plains bison population in Canada has increased by more than 35% since 2004. Currently, plains bison in Canada can be found in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. Of these bison, however, the only wild populations live in BC and Saskatchewan. Although they have made the plains of North America their home, plains bison are not native to the region either. The bison that live there today originated from Asia and began to migrate thousands of years ago through Siberia, undergoing multiple stages of evolution before becoming the modern plains bison. [caption id="attachment_49019" align="aligncenter" width="525"] © Richard Main[/caption]

A Threatened Species

So what's the issue? The plains bison is listed as a threatened species according to their most recent COSEWIC assessment. On the surface, the fact that their population has increased by such a large percentage seems like it would be great news. It is, and it certainly represents strides in the right direction, but prior to the expansion of the fur trade and European settlement, there were approximately 30 million bison across the continent. This is in stark contrast to the current estimated North American population which is significantly smaller than 1 million  over 95% of which is for commercial purposes. Having such a small fraction of their population in the wild brings with it another threat which may be forgotten about: a weakened gene pool. As a population decreases in size it loses members who would have been able to contribute to genetic diversity, which creates a stronger, healthier, and more viable population as it increases. In the event that the population were to become even smaller, their lack of genetic diversity would be a major problem for plains bison in the future.  

So what can we do?

While they currently have a COSEWIC listing, plains bison are currently unlisted under SARA, a decision made in part due to the protections they already receive living within national parks & considerations for the economic health of the bison industry. It is important to become better acquainted with the nuance behind situations such as these to better protect the plains bison. To take a more direct approach, supporting charity and research organizations focusing on the well-being of plains bison is a great help with an immediate impact.

North Atlantic Right Whales: The Right Way
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North Atlantic Right Whales: The Right Way

What do you get when you multiply a Tyrannosaurus Rex by eight? At about 65,000 kilograms you get roughly the weight of one North Pacific Right Whale! These massive sea creatures are aquatic mammals, but despite their need to come up for air they're able to dive for as long as 60 minutes! Such large animals tend to have higher energy requirements than most others and North Atlantic Right Whales are no exception. On any given day the carnivorous whales can eat up to 2500 kilograms worth of food. Like many animals, the whales’ migration habits are based on climate. They will often head south in the winter (their calving season) for their preferred breeding conditions. The whales live throughout the North of the Atlantic Ocean, mainly concentrated on Canadian and US coasts. Despite their frequent migration, certain conditions are considered optimal for the whales to live in. Thus far, two regions with such conditions (called critical habitats) have been named for them in Canada: the Bay of Fundy and the Roseway Basin. Following the vast declines (and eventual extirpation) of these whales from Western Europe, whalers made their way to Canada in search of more. After their arrival in the 1500s, the North Atlantic Right Whale's name was given by whalers who determined them to be the ‘right’ whales to hunt. Being the ‘right’ whale for centuries took its toll on North Atlantic Right Whale populations. Among other features, their blubber and oil made them attractive targets, with whalers pushing them to near extinction in the 1900s. This excessive hunting eventually led to a hunting ban in 1935. [caption id="attachment_48823" align="alignnone" width="1024"] © Alan Woodhouse[/caption] So what's the issue? Although international protection and hunting bans have addressed the threat of over-hunting, they still face several other types of danger. Large ships and fishing equipment are have been problematic as the whales' size and lack of speed make it more difficult to avoid such obstacles. Furthermore, their birth rate is inefficient as a solution, as the females are now only giving birth every 9 years, with their window only lasting approximately 28 years. This inefficiency is compounded by the fact that the population is already very small. As a result of these issues and the history of over-hunting, the whales' SARA and COSEWIC statuses have them listed as an endangered species.  What can we do? Currently, a Recovery Strategy has been put in place by the Government of Canada to help rebuild right whale populations. Supporting government projects such as this one is critical to bringing their population back to stable numbers. Reporting sightings and emergencies is also very important to help scientists keep track of what's going on. In our day-to-day it can be difficult to budget much time to so many causes, so supporting NGOs' research or action efforts is a great way to get personally involved and getting more acquainted with the SARA species profile to learn more is a great start.

The Polar Bear: Rider of Icebergs
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The Polar Bear: Rider of Icebergs

Legendary commercial actor, close friend of Santa Claus, and explorer of the North, the Polar Bear is nothing if not the symbol of Arctic life. Their Latin name, Ursus maritimus, translates to sea bear and provides great insight into how they live. As apex predators, polar bears spend lots of time hunting in and around Arctic waters for their prey, their favourite of which is the ringed seal. Polar bears are recognisable by their white coat and their large size. Males tend to weigh between 350-600 kilograms while females will weigh between 150-290 kilograms, both can be over 10 feet tall when standing. Their bodies are made to withstand all the cold that the Arctic climate has to offer, as their two layers of fur and thick layer of blubber offer them more than enough warmth to survive – sometimes even too much warmth for the summers! Apart from the big screen, polar bears live across the Arctic region, particularly in five countries: Canada, the US, Greenland, Russia, and Norway. As such, polar bears represent history for many peoples across the Arctic. For millennia, various indigenous groups have counted on polar bears as key contributors to their ways of life. They are still hunted today as part of their long-held traditions, but the process is very monitored and respectful of the prey. Nearly every part of a polar bear is used by the hunters, whether for weather-appropriate clothing or for calorie-rich meals. Many regulations have been imposed on the hunters, serving to protect polar bear populations from being threatened by direct human action.

So what’s the issue?

According to both SARA and COSEWIC, polar bears are a species of special concern. Although effective in curtailing over-hunting, the regulations do not address the main threat polar bears face; climate change. Polar bears rely on sea ice as their habitat. This has historically worked very well for them as it allows them plenty of room for hunting, but lately, with rising global temperatures as a result of climate change, living on the ice has become more trying for them. Different polar bear populations face different challenges, but among the most threatened are those living in regions of Seasonal Ice and Polar Basin Divergent Ice. The existence of Seasonal Ice, as the name suggests, is dependent on the season as it melts in the summer and begin to return in the fall. When the ice melts it leaves polar bears unable to hunt, forcing them into a fast. Fasting is not new to them, but the duration of the melt is getting much longer than it used to be, making it more challenging for polar bears to fast through longer summers. For Polar Basin Divergent Ice regions the challenges are similar. The sea ice builds up near shores and will retract from the shores as it melts in the warmer months. Climate change accelerates this process and melts more of the ice near the shore. This forces the bears to either go back to land where they would have to fast or swimming further out in search of more ice. 

What can we do?

The most important thing we can do to keep polar bears safe is to support environmental initiatives in government. Making green choices from the top-down is essential to fighting climate change on a macro scale, and the best way to do this is to stay informed on the issues along with the candidates who advocate for them. On a more personal level, supporting polar bear charities or conservation organisations goes a long way in furthering research, and making eco-friendly decisions in our daily lives can push others to follow suit.

(Eco)Justice for the Sage Grouse
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(Eco)Justice for the Sage Grouse

The Federal Court of Canada has decided to grant Nature Canada and other nature groups, represented by Ecojustice, the status of intervener in a law case that will test the constitutionality of the Species at Risk Act (SARA) for the first time. The City of Medicine Hat in Alberta and LGX Oil & Gas initiated an application for judicial review asking that an emergency order protecting the endangered Greater Sage Grouse, and sections of SARA be declared unconstitutional. Having intervener status will allow the nature groups and Ecojustice file a written argument, and make a brief oral argument at the court hearing. The emergency order being contested was issued in 2013 to impose restrictions to protect the habitat of the Greater Sage Grouse on provincial and federal Crown lands in Alberta and Saskatchewan. At the time, Environment Canada reported that there were fewer than 150 birds remaining in the two Canadian provinces where they are found (Alberta and Saskatchewan) and that the bird’s population had fallen 98 per cent since 1988. The Greater Sage Grouse is listed as endangered under the federal Species at Risk Act, and must remain as such to stabilize its population and continue its recovery.

A future for the Sage Grouse

As it stands, Ecojustice is looking to ensure that the judges hear why emergency orders and SARA are valid law, and that they are critical to the future of the Greater Sage Grouse and many other wildlife species across Canada.
For more information on this case, please consult the following media reports CBC News on June 2, 2016: LGX Oil + Gas blames sage grouse protection order for insolvency CBC News on September 17, 2013: Endangered sage grouse to be protected by emergency order

Barn and Bank Swallows Legally Listed as Threatened
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Barn and Bank Swallows Legally Listed as Threatened

[caption id="attachment_31795" align="alignleft" width="150"]Image of Megan MacIntosh Megan MacIntosh, Purple Martin Project Coordinator[/caption] Not long after fall songbird migration wrapped up for another year, two familiar summer residents, the Barn Swallow and Bank Swallow, were officially listed as threatened species under Schedule 1 of the 2002 Species at Risk Act (SARA) in Canada. This moment came many years after COSEWIC, the scientific advisory committee, made the recommendation (2011 for Barn Swallow and 2013 for Bank Swallow). Nature Canada congratulates the Minister of Environment and Climate Change, the Honourable Catherine McKenna, for pushing these listings through. With natural habitat significantly altered over the past century, swallows, in an incredible demonstration of resilience, have adapted to rely on human structures for breeding habitat. As migratory birds, they are protected under the Migratory Birds Convention Act (1994), and have been included in various multi-species action plans at historic sites and conservation areas across Canada. Provincially, Barn Swallow and Bank Swallow are listed as threatened in Ontario and endangered in Nova Scotia, and the Purple Martin, North America’s largest swallow, is listed as special concern in British Columbia. What does this mean? How can it be that the Barn Swallow, the most abundant and widely distributed species of swallow in the world, came to be threatened? Image of Barn Swallow Let’s start with the glaringly obvious bad news: Their populations’ are in trouble, and their disappearance is part of larger trend impacting songbirds – a distress signal from ecosystems widely out of balance. Over the past 40 years, swallows and other birds that rely on a diet of flying insects have undergone steeper declines than any other birds in Canada - some by more than 90%. While scientists are still working to understand more about the cause, threats such as climate change, use of pesticides, decreased insect prey availability, loss of wetland and foraging habitat, industrial activities, competition from invasive species, and increased predation pressure all play a role. If nothing is done, it is possible that we could lose these wonderful species, and with them, their beautiful songs as a symbol of spring. The good news is that SARA was enacted precisely for this purpose – to prevent the disappearance of species at risk. Through SARA, definitive actions and resources can be set in place to get these birds some of the special attention they need. For example, the government is now required to produce a federal recovery strategy for the Bank Swallow and Barn Swallow within 2 years of the date they were listed. A recovery strategy serves as a detailed management plan that includes an assessment of the species and its needs, identifies threats and critical habitat, and sets priorities and approaches towards stopping and reversing their decline. In the meantime, we cannot rely on this as our only plan.  For species so closely connected with humans, a strong stewardship effort is needed to help provide a safe place for swallows while they raise their young in our backyards. Anybody can help. Learn more about Nature Canada’s Purple Martin program, or discover resources by our partners at Bird Studies Canada. To see the full list of scheduled species to SARA, visit https://www.registrelep-sararegistry.gc.ca/default.asp?lang=en&n=24F7211B-1

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Imperiled Insectivores: What We Know and How We Can Learn More
Purple Martins pair at bird house complex
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Imperiled Insectivores: What We Know and How We Can Learn More

[caption id="attachment_33785" align="alignleft" width="150"]Image of sean feagan Sean Feagan, Guest Blogger[/caption] This post was written by guest blogger Sean Feagan. An aerial insectivore is a behavioural term used to describe species that feed almost exclusively on insects while on the wing. In regards to birds, they are comprised of species belonging to four bird families: swifts, swallows, flycatchers and nightjars. In addition to being beautiful, these birds help control insect populations. Despite being protected under the federal Migratory Birds Convention Act, aerial insectivore bird populations are declining rapidly. This is a serious problem. For example, Tree Swallow (note the striking iridescence) as pictured below, has declined by an estimated 2.25 percent per year from 1966 to 2015. Figure 1 at the end of this blog presents the species of aerial insectivore that breed in Canada, including information on whether they are currently listed as part of  Canada’s Species at Risk Act (SARA), as well as their estimated population trend for 1966-2015 and 2005-2015. The trend data are derived from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and are specific to Canada. [caption id="attachment_34594" align="alignright" width="421"]Image of a Tree Swallow Tree swallow, of striking iridescence, has declined by an estimated 2.25% per year from 1966 to 2015. © Sean Feagan[/caption] Why are these declines happening? It is believed these declines are likely happening through a variety of interacting mechanisms, which may vary by species. Previous research suggested that declines were highest in the northeast of North America[i], a result that correlated with geographic gradients in industrialization and urbanization, which led researchers to believe these trends are driven by the decline of insect prey. However, recent Canadian research using BBS data has indicated that the decline of some aerial insectivores’ species has not followed this trend. It also found that species appeared to respond to large-scale environmental conditions, varying regionally and by species.[ii] For example, Chimney Swift declined at a lower rate through the industrialized northeast, while  Northern Rough-Winged Swallows declined primarily in the west. These results brought into question whether the explanation for why aerial insectivores as a guild are declining is as simple as fewer insect prey. The truth may just be that it’s complicated, and more research is needed. How can you help? Various citizen science initiatives exist for you to contribute to the understanding of aerial insectivore declines. You can help provide information regarding long-term population and distribution trends by . You can also use apps like eBird or NatureHood to record your observations while you are out and about. In addition, Nature Canada’s Purple Martin Project is a project to track and monitor populations and important habitat of swallow species in Canada. It also promotes the installation and stewardship of Purple Martin artificial nesting houses. SwiftWatch is a Bird Studies Canada’s monitoring and conservation program aimed to help the Chimney Swift. This program, active in Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, and the Maritimes, involves monitoring of swift nest and roost sites to promote the understanding of the species distribution, demographics, and life history.


Figure 1: A list of aerial insectivores in Canada with their status and population trend. [custom_table style="1"]
Family Species SARA Status Trend, 1966-2015 (% change / year) Trend, 2005-2015 (% change / year)

Hirundinidae

(Swallows & Martins)

Bank Swallow not listed1 -7.56 -3.49
Barn Swallow not listed1 -3.32 -1.48
Cliff Swallow not listed -2.81 0.60
Northern Rough-winged Swallow not listed -2.35 -1.02
Purple Martin not listed -0.693 4.783
Tree Swallow not listed -2.25 -1.24
Violet-green Swallow not listed -0.76 -0.32

Apodidae

(Swifts)

Black Swift not listed 2 -6.643 -5.403
Chimney Swift Threatened -5.34 -5.73
Vaux's Swift not listed -2.493 -2.073
White-throated Swift not listed -0.073 -0.183

Caprimulgidae

(Nightjars)

Chuck-will's-widow not listed N/A N/A
Common Nighthawk Threatened -3.413 -1.013
Common Poorwill not listed N/A N/A
Eastern Whip-poor-will Threatened -0.253 -2.193
1. Species designated as Threatened by COSEWIC, but has not been added to Schedule 1 of SARA. 2. Species designated as Endangered by COSEWIC, but has not been added to Schedule 1 of SARA 3. Species BBS data set contains deficiencies (e.g. low abundance, small sample size, imprecise)
[/custom_table] It is important to note that the trends are presented as average percent change per year, rather than a cumulative trend for the entire sample period.
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Acknowledgment: [i] Declines of aerial insectivores in North America follow a geographic gradient. [ii] Differences in spatial synchrony and interspecific concordance inform guild-level population trends for aerial insectivorous birds.

Multi-species plans: A new approach to species recovery in Canada
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Multi-species plans: A new approach to species recovery in Canada

[caption id="attachment_33785" align="alignleft" width="150"]sean feagan Sean Feagan, Guest Blogger[/caption] This blog is written by guest blogger Sean Feagan.  The primary cause of the decline of wild species in Canada is the loss and degradation of habitat. Given this, the protection and management of habitat is central to the recovery of species at risk. The federal Species at Risk Act legislates the listing, protection and recovery of species at risk, including the prohibition of destruction of “critical habitat” on federal land, and establishes requirements for species recovery. Under SARA, recovery planning is a two-step process, which first involves the development of a Recovery Strategy that includes the identification of critical habitat, and a subsequent Action Plan to identify measures to protect or enhances the critical habitat. To date, this recovery planning framework has largely been undertaken on a species-by-species basis. However, there is a trend towards multi-species recovery planning in which proposed management actions target multiple species at risk simultaneously. The Species at Risk Act Policies (2009) suggests multi-species recovery planning could increase the overall efficiency and/or effectiveness of conservation efforts, particularly in situations where multiple species co-occur in the same habitat, are affected by similar threats or are similar taxonomically. This suggestion is supported by economic analyses on multi-species planning which employed optimization models. Multi-species approaches may also streamline consultation efforts, reduce conflict between species at risk, address common threats, promote thinking on a broader scale, and reduce duplication of effort in conservation planning. greater sage grouse The Environment Canada Protected Areas Strategy (2011) outlines two main approaches to conservation:

  1. Stewardship initiatives promoting land management beneficial to wild species habitat; and
  2. The securing of land for the protection of biodiversity.
Within each of these approaches, multi-species action plans are currently being implemented for species conservation in Canada. South of the Divide: A multi-species action plan dependent on private stewardship The South of the Divide (SOD) Action Plan (2016) targets nine federally listed species at risk inhabiting the Milk River basin of southwestern Saskatchewan. The nine species, largely dependent on short-grass native prairie habitats, are Black-footed Ferret, Burrowing Owl, Eastern Yellow-bellied Racer, Greater Sage-Grouse, Loggerhead Shrike, Mormon Metal Mark, Mountain Plover, Sprague’s Pipit and Swift Fox. Critical habitat within the region was first defined independently for each species, then these areas were combined into a single layer.

The action plan employs spatial analyses to prioritize and direct conservation efforts within the region. A spatial threat analysis was performed to classify the overlapping area of the species’ critical habitat into three threat classes (low, medium, high) by assessing the combined impact of existing and potential threats (e.g. industrial activity, roads, capability to support agriculture) in the region. Lands within and in proximity to the provincial community pastures, and the region between the east and west blocks of Grasslands National Park were identified as high threat areas. The action plan also contains a suite of conservation activities to promote the recovery of these species.

Parks Canada Multi-Species Action Planning

Under the Canada National Parks Act, the maintenance or restoration of ecological integrity is the first priority in all aspects of park management, a key element includes maintaining the composition and abundance of native species, notably species at risk. Within their 2013-14 Report on Plans and Priorities, the Parks Canada Agency stated they will work to recovery priority species at risk through the implementation of site-based (eg. for a particular park or conservation area) action plans using the multi-species approach. Eleven site-based multi-species action plans have been finalized for National Parks, National Marine Parks, and National Historic Sites throughout Canada, with an additional twelve plans proposed. These action plans target species differ taxonomically, but together exist within the site. These plans focus on species listed under SARA, by COSEWIC, under provincial legislation, or that are of particular significance to indigenous peoples. [caption id="attachment_33812" align="alignleft" width="300"]Lewis' Woodpecker Lewis' Woodpecker[/caption] The action plans assess the potential of the site to contribute to the national recovery of each species, identify of critical habitat within the site, list monitoring needs for each species, and include recovery activities aimed to sustain or recovery species populations within the site. While some of the suggested management activities target single species, others will potentially benefit multiple species. For example, within the proposed Multi-species Action Plan for Jasper National Park, controlled burns to maintain early successional post-fire communities will promote multiple species at risk, including Common Nighthawk, Half-moon Hairstreak, Lewis’s Woodpecker, Olive-sided Flycatcher, and Whitebark Pine Conclusion Multi-species planning represents a potentially effective tool for species conservation. The effectiveness of these plans will be assessed through their implementation, ensuring these policy remain adaptive and evidence based. Hopefully they will act to promote the preservation and recovery of Canada’s many fascinating and beautiful species at risk!
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Our voices were heard! Barn and Bank Swallows are going to be protected by government
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Our voices were heard! Barn and Bank Swallows are going to be protected by government

This blog was written by Pierre Sadik, our Senior Advisor, Species at Risk. After many years of silence and delay the federal government appears to have heard our voice and the voicesImage of Barn Swallow of others in the conservation community who have been calling for the listing of Barn and Bank Swallows under the Species at Risk Act (SARA). Hundreds of you sent letters or signed our petition to the Environment Minister and she has listened and finally, after considerable delay, moved to protect Barn and Bank Swallows. The government has given formal notice that these majestic little birds are going to be listed as 'threatened’ under SARA. This will begin to offer them some protection as the government must, under the Act, start the process of preparing a plan for the recovery of these species across the country. Nature Canada will be keeping a watchful eye on government to ensure that it acts as quickly as possible and takes the steps that scientists and naturalists have identified as necessary to stop the precipitous four decade decline of these once ubiquitous birds. We will also continue to press governments on other species of swallow, including the Purple Martin, which is likewise showing worrying signs of population decline in eastern Ontario and southern Quebec. Together, we can make continue to sure our voices are heard just as we did for the Barn and Bank Swallow!

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New Species added to the Species at Risk Act
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New Species added to the Species at Risk Act

[caption id="attachment_22916" align="alignleft" width="150"]Image of Samantha Nurse Samantha Nurse, Web and Social Media Coordinator[/caption] Congratulations to the federal government for adding 11 new species to the Species at Risk Act! Last week, the federal government added these new species to the list and they will now receive some protection under the Act. In the next steps forward, the federal government will start to work on recovery planning with provinces, territories, Indigenous communities and stakeholders. Here are the species recently added: [caption id="attachment_31470" align="alignright" width="300"]Image of "Collared Pika (2) - Ochotona collaris" by National Park Service, Alaska Region is licensed under CC BY 2.0. "Collared Pika (2) - Ochotona collaris" by National Park Service, Alaska Region is licensed under CC BY 2.0.[/caption]

  1. Olive Clubtail
  2. Okanagan Efferia
  3. Dune Tachinid Fly
  4. Horned Grebe (Western population)
  5. Buff-breasted Sandpiper
  6. Baird’s Sparrow
  7. Batwing Vinyl Lichen
  8. Crumpled Tarpaper Lichen
  9. Peacock Vinyl Lichen
  10. Collared Pika
  11. Magnum Mantleslug
However, this is only one small step in the protection of species at risk in Canada. There is now a backlog of up to five years of 100 of species scientifically declared to be at risk that has not yet been legally listed under the Species at Risk Act. The species that are waiting to be legally listed include the Barn Swallow, Narwhal, Western Grizzly Bear and the Loggerhead Sea Turtle. How can you help? Write a letter to your local editor with our free template to raise awareness on the importance of these at risk species!
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